English Law Studies (ELS) Course Programme

                                                                                                                                      LEVEL 2

September-May: 300 hrs. Total study time

120 hrs. compulsory class attendance

180 hrs. independent study time

1.     TORT (II)*

1.1       REVISION LEVEL 1

1.2     Nuisance [(Human Rights Act 1998), Rylands & Another v. Fletcher, Dangerous Premises]

1.3           Defamation: (libel, slander, malicious falsehood, remedies, defences), Privacy, Economic Loss

1.4           Trespass to Land and Goods and Conversion

1.5          Intentional torts [the concept, intention (e.g. trespass to the person, false imprisonment, intentional infliction of physical or mental harm, harassment, intentional interference with economic interests, intentional abuse of power and process)

1.6          Legislation and Tort: (breach of statutory duty, Occupiers Liability Act 1979, product liability, Consumer Protection Act 1987, Directive 85/374/EEC)

1.7          The Tort ‘tree’

1.8           Transnational issues: Rome II Regulation No. 865/2007 (non-contractual obligations)

2.            CONTRACT (II)*

2.1           REVISION LEVEL 1

2.2           Termination: performance, breach (nature and effect of, right to terminate, limitations, time stipulation)

2.3           Frustration: limitations, effects, rule in Sumpter v. Hedges 1898, ‘inadimplenti non est adiplendum, Law  Reform, (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943

2.4           Exclusion(exemption) and limitation of liability

2.5           Warranties, promises, guarantees, deposits,

2.6           Misrepresentation (definition, breaking down the elements: false, statement, fact, law,  inducement),  when actionable, types, remedies, Misrepresentation Act 1967, exclusion of liability, non-disclosure, misrepresentation and estoppels, puff, damages)

2.7           Mistake: common mistake (impossibility, as to subject matter, as to identity of subject matter, as to possibility of performance, as to quality, as to quantity, as to law, non est factum); unilateral mistake (as to person, as to subject matter, as to terms of contract), effects and remedies, rectification

2.8           Great Peace Shipping Ltd v Tsavliris (International) Ltd [2002] 

2.9           Duress (types, remedies)

2.10         Undue Influence (actual, presumed, remedies, third parties)            

2.11         Examining Cases on ‘intention, ‘consideration’, etc.

2.12         The Contract ‘tree’

2.13         Transnational issues: Rome I Regulation, 2008 (applicable to contractual obligations)


                Case Study: Anthony v. Cleopatra: continued

3.1          REVISION LEVEL 1

3.2          Adversarial System

3.3          Jurisdiction

3.4          Funding options for litigation

3.5          Evidence; finality in justice (Ladd v. Marshall 1954, Singh v. Habib [2011)

3.6          Overriding Objective) Part 1 CPR)

3.7          Pre-action Protocol for personal injury- revisited

3.8          Civil procedure ‘tree’

 3.9           Commencing proceedings CPR Part 6 (Service of documents), CPR Part 7 (the Claim), CPR Part 9 (Responding to Particulars of Claim), CPR Part 10 (Acknowledgment of Service)

3.10        Statements of truth (CPR Part 22)

3.11        Particulars of Claim (CPR Part 16)

3.12        Defence and Reply (CPR Part 15)

3.13        Witness Statements (CPR Part 32)

3.14         Introduction to Court’s management powers, case management (CPR Part 3), breaches of CPR, unless orders, striking out, sanction relief

3.15        Disclosure and inspection of documents (CPR part 31)

3.16        Briefing counsel (knowing your limitations, advising client)


4.1            REVISION LEVEL 2

4.2           SRA Code of Conduct: Chapter 11, 13A (overseas)

4.3           Receipts and payments: client money, office money, cash, cheques, petty cash

4.4           Deposits: agents, stakeholders

4.5           Disbursements: agency, principal

4.6           Accounting entries: separate office and client ledgers

4.7           Bank accounts (institutional lender)

4.9          Bills: submission of, reduction and payment of (VAT element), accounting entries required

4.10        Required accounting records for compliance SRA Accounts Rules

4.11        Balance sheet and profit and loss statement

4.12        Auditing of accounts

4.13        Professional indemnity insurance

4.14         Legal Services Act 2007

5.            FAMILY LAW (I)

5.1           The Family

5.2           Marriage, civil partnership and cohabitation

5.3           Divorce and mediation

5.4           Family property (married, unmarried, complex)

5.5           Separation and property

5.6           Transnational issues: EU Rome III Regulation (The European Divorce Law Pact 2010) for applicable law, Brussels II bis 2201/2003 Regulation (for jurisdiction), maintenance orders (the ‘Maintenance Regulation’) Regulation 4/2009, Child Abduction: Hague Convention 1980 (civil aspects), Hague Convention 1996 (jurisdiction, applicable law)


6.1           Wills (principle, Wills Act 1963)

6.2           Intestacy (principle, Wills Act 1837, Administration of Estates Act 1925, Trustee Act 1925, Inheritance and Trustees Powers Act 2014)

6.3           Rights of third parties, inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependants)Act1975

6.4           Probate, administration (CPR Part 57)

6.5           Transnational issues:  EU Brussels IV Regulation 650/2012 (cross border successions)

7.            BUSINESS, COMPANY & TAX LAW (I)

7.1           Concept and origin of companies (Salomon v Salomon & Co. Ltd 1896)

7.2           Legal personality and the law

7.3           Setting up a business: business plan, SWOT test, types of business organisations; sole trader, partnership, limited company (private/public)

7.4           Sole trader or limited company

7.5           Introduction to operational concepts: capital (shareholders), management (directors), human resources (employees), trading partners

7.6           Introduction to financial concepts: revenue, expenditure, profit/loss, balance sheet, P&L statement

7.7           Formation formalities

7.8           Promoters and pre-incorporation contracts

7.9           Companies Act 2006

7.10         Directors’ duties

7.11         The Small Business Enterprise and Employment Act 2015


Exercises and assessments relating to practice competencies in modules 1-7including reading cases, working on facts and issues, case brief, brief to counsel, letter of complaint, letter road accident, retainer letter, contract  problem, preparing for an interview, further interviewing practice (difficult clients), who is he/she/they, why is the client there, what does the client want from you, what is right for the client, identifying urgent priorities, considering effective action, considering proactive and effective planning, what are the risks/benefits attached to the advice given, empathising (language, cultural and personality issues),explaining costs issues, interview style; feedback, asking the right questions the right way, working from a bare facts structure to expand in consideration of rules to apply, considering strengths/weaknesses (30/50/70), improving poor chances/undermining good chances, supporting facts with appropriate evidence, evaluating ethical implications, reporting interviews, advising the client, brief to counsel, claim form, particulars of claim, advocacy (moot), analysing a ‘ratio decidendi’, critical analysis (of judgment, essay), working on language and voice skills

3rd or 4th year in England?  You’re nearly there!

English Law Studies (ELS) Course Programme

                                                                                                                           LEVEL 3

September-May: 300 hrs. Total study time

120 hrs. compulsory class attendance

180 hrs. independent study time

1.            CONTRACT (III)*

1.1           REVISION LEVELS 1 & 2

1.2           Analysis and interpretation of contractual clauses

1.3           Remedies (compensatory, liquidated, punitive, nominal), equitable remedies (specific performance, injunction, restitution)

1.4           Rescission

1.5           Reformation

1.6           Assignment (non-assignable rights, by operation of law)

1.7           Agency (capacity to be an agent, creation, effects, commercial agents)

1.8           Third parties (privity of contract, Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999, third parties and negligence, exemption, Himalaya’ clause)

1.9           Contracts with the consumer: unfair contracts terms, Consumer Rights Act 2015 (Sale of Goods Act 1979, ‘distance contracts’, Consumer Contracts (Information, Cancellation, Additional Charges) Regulations 2013 (“Consumer Contract Regulations 2013”), application to lawyer-client retainers.


                Case Study: Anthony v. Cleopatra continued

2.1           REVISION LEVEL 2

2.2           Disclosure (inspection, strategy)

2.3           Applications (CPR Part 23)

2.4           Summary judgment (Part 24), striking out (CPR Part3 & 24)

2.5           Requests for further information (CPR Part 18)

2.6           Admissions (CPR Part 14)

2.7           Interim remedies and security for costs (CPR Part 25)

2.8           Offers to settle (CPR PART 36), ‘Calderbank’ offers

2.9           Case management and directions (CPR Part 3)

2.10         Evidence overview (CPR Part 32), testing evidence with cross examination

2.11         Preparing ‘bundles’

2.12         Trial (the road map), judgment, appeal, enforcement

3.            CRIMINAL LAW (II)*


3.2           Role of police, charge, prosecution, courts, sentences, prisons, bail, report, compensation, minors’  rights

3.3           Categories of crimes (offences against the person, sexual offences, public order offences, offences  against property, forgery, personation, cheating

3.4           Specific offences; Homicide (murder, manslaughter, voluntary manslaughter, manslaughter by gross  negligence, corporate manslaughter)

3.5           Non-fatal offences against the person (assault, battery, consent, ss18,20 and 47- Offences against the  Person Act 1861)

3.6           Theft and related offences (Theft Act 1968, theft, robbery, making off without payment, burglary, aggravated burglary, blackmail, handling stolen goods

3.7           Fraud (Fraud Act 2006, fraud by false representation, fraud by failing to disclose information, fraud by abuse of position, obtaining services dishonestly, possession of articles for fraud)

Damage to property (Criminal Damage Act 1971, destroying or damaging property, destroying or damaging property with intent endanger life, arson)

4.            FAMILY LAW (II)

4.1           REVISION LEVEL 1

4.2           Parents and the rights of children

4.3           Children in care (foster parents, adoption)

4.4           Human Rights Act 1998 (family law, divorce, children)

4.5           Families and the elderly


5.1           REVISION LEVEL 1

5.2           UK Corporate Governance Code

5.3           European directives

5.4           Financial Services and Markets Act 2000

5.5           History and principles of taxation

5.6           Connecting factors (residence, domicile, nationality)

5.7           Personal taxation

5.8           Business taxation

5.9           Sales taxes and duties

5.10         Double taxation (principles, conventions, effect)

6.            LAW OF PROPERTY (I)*

6.1           What is land? What is property? (Movable, immovable, real, personal)

6.2           Protocol 1 Art.1 of the European Convention on Human Rights

6.3           Title (freehold/fee simple, leasehold, tenancy, legal interest, equitable interest)

6.4           Adverse possession: (factual possession, intention to possess, without owner’s consent, nec clam, nec vi, nec precario’, fee simple title, difference with prescriptive easement

6.5           Distinguishing rights to occupy and use (lease and licence)

6.6           Requirements for a valid deed and valid contract in relation to land (s.40 Law of Property Act 1925, s.2 Law of Property (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1989, for new interests in land, sale, transfer, lease,  mortgage

6.7           Unregistered land: role of title deeds, law to protect interests, registration of land charges, doctrine of  Notice

6.8           Registered land: estates which are registrable. Protecting interests, interests that override registration, interests that need to be protected by entry on the Register

6.9           Leasehold: formalities for creating a lease, landlord and tenant covenants, effect of assignments and  sub-lettings, termination of lease

6.10         Public Rights and Access

6.11         Trust Property


7.1           What constitution?

7.2           The rule of law: definition, key concepts, legal status, twin pillars of the British Constitution (rule of law, parliamentary sovereignty – A.V. Dicey, 1885), Magna Carta 1215

7.3           Separation of powers and core institutions: parliament, cabinet and central government, judiciary,  crown, the people, checks and balances

7.4           Interaction between crown prerogative and parliament

7.5           Legislation (enactment and repeal), devolution (nature, status)

7.6           Government power: accountability to parliament, collective and individual ministerial responsibility

7.7           Police and public order: breach of the peace, Public Order Act 1986, Public Order Act offences,  processions and assemblies

7.8           Human Rights Act:  civil liberties, interaction with European Convention on Human Rights (Rome 1950)

7.9           Judicial Review: illegality (wrong person, unlawful sub-delegation, error of law or fact, ultra vires, relevant/irrelevant considerations, fettering discretion); irrationality (proportionality); procedural impropriety (statutory procedures, breach of natural justice, bias, no fair hearing, no reasons given); legitimate expectation; additional grounds, CPR Part 54

7.10         The Administrative Court

7.11         European Communities Act 1972, Brexit, repeal Bill

7.12         Relationship EU law and national law (The Factortame Case), remedies for breach of EU law

7.13         Colonies

7.14         Constitutional Reform Act 2006

7.15         Constitutional and Reform and Governance Act 2010

7.16         Parliamentary Voting and Constituencies Act 2011

7.17         Trade unions

8.            COMMERCIAL LAW (I)

8.1           Sale of Goods and Services: legislation, business to business and consumer to consumer contracts  (Supply of Goods (Implied Terms) Act 1973, Sale of Goods Act 1979, Sale and Supply of Goods Act 1994,  Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982, Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977; ‘consumer contracts’ (trader supplying consumer), Consumer Rights Act 2015

8.2           Representations

8.3           Terms and guaranties

8.4           Seller’s obligations: title, quality, quantity

8.5           Buyer’s obligations: acceptance, payment,

8.6           Transfer of property: Non-specific Goods, Specific Goods

8.7           Reservation of right of disposal

8.8           Remedies and compensation

8.9           The ‘Four Freedoms’ and effect on commerce

8.10         EU free movement of goods (customs duties and charges (articles 20-30 Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union – TFEU), discriminatory taxation (direct and indirect discrimination, non-tariff barriers to trade (quantitative restrictions, selling arrangements, derogation), objective justification (article 110 TFEU, ECJ 20 February 1979 (‘Cassis de Dijon Case’ 120/78), measures having an effect equivalent to quantitative restrictions – MEQR’s)

8.11         EU free Movement of citizens (workers, self-employed, economically inactive and their families, equal treatment and access to employment, article 45 TFEU

8.12         EU free movement of capital (TFEU articles 63-66, what are they? Annex 1 Directive 88/361/EEC, definition types of capital movement, when and why liberalised)

8.13         EU right of establishment and freedom to provide services (TFEU articles 49 and 56, Directive 2006/123)

8.14         Competition law (art. 101-102 TFEU, agreements restricting competition, horizontal and vertical agreements, cartels [price fixing, market sharing], exceptions, abuse of dominant position [unfair pricing, limiting production, refusing to innovate to the prejudice of consumers, Commissions powers of investigation, imposition of fines, rules of procedure Council Regulation (EC) 1/2003, key factors, checks and balances, national competition authorities, application of art. 101-102

9.            EQUITY &TRUSTS (I)*

9.1           What are trusts

9.2           Reason for trusts

9.3           Property in trust

9.4           Settlor, trustee, beneficiary

9.5           Types of trust

9.6           Creation and requirements of express trusts(intention to create, subject matter, certainty of objectives

9.7           Formalities for an express inter vivos trust

9.8           Constitution of express inter vivos trust (transfers to trustees, declaration of self as a trustee)

9.9           Resulting trusts (how they arise, when presumed)

9.10         Half secret and secret trusts (creation)

9.11         Trusts and the family house, establishment of a constructive trust (legal title in name of both parties,  sole party, express declaration and agreement as to equitable ownership, direct and indirect contribution, evaluating share of each party)

9.12         Equitable remedies (nature of, types of injunction, principles applicable to interim injunctions)

9.13         “Equity will not assist the volunteer”

9.14         Tax Implications of trusts


Exercises and assessments for practice competencies in Subjects 1-9 including correspondence updating client, in- tray tests, Watson-Glaser tests, submitting an application, giving written legal advice, preparing bundles for trial, skeleton arguments, addressing the Court properly, opening speeches, introducing a case to the court in support of a submission in argument, working on language and voice skills, setting up a private company

Start packing your bags …

English Law Studies (ELS) Course Programme

                                                                                                                             LEVEL 4

September-May: 300 hrs. Total study time

120 hrs. compulsory class attendance

180 hrs. independent study time

1.            CONTRACT (IV)*

1.1           REVISION (I), (II) and (III)

1.2           Unjust enrichment failure of consideration, void contracts, quantum meruit, provision for remuneration (express, condition, no express condition)

1.3           Damages (types of loss, remoteness, measure, mitigation)

1.4           Interpretation and drafting


2.1           REVISION LEVELS 1, 2, 3

2.2           Case Study Anthony v. Cleopatra reviewed

2.3           Confidentiality, legal professional privilege, litigation privilege, inter-relationship (no blank cheque for secrecy)

2.4           Dealing with conflicts of interest

2.5           Expert evidence

2.6           Costs (principles)

2.7           Application for Summary Judgment (when and how)

2.8           Arbitration (New York Convention 1958, Uncitral Arbitration Rules 1976 – revised, Arbitration Act 1996

2.9           Alternative dispute resolution, negotiation (between lawyers, ‘at the door of the Court’, conciliation/mediation, ombudsman, consumer groups

2.10         Conventions, protocols and principles

2.11         Transnational business litigation issues

3.            FAMILY LAW (III)

3.1           REVISION LEVELS 1 & 2

3.2           Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 and other legislation

3.3           Children and families Act 2014

3.4           Financial arrangements

3.5           Civil partnership

3.6           Domestic violence

3.7           Not uncommon transnational scenarios


4.1           REVISION (I) and (II)

4.2           Insolvencies and liquidations (Insolvency Act 1986)

4.3           Financial Services Act 2012

4.4           Corporate financing

4.5           Merger

4.6           Acquisition

4.7           Market regulation

4.8           Taxation:  international aspects (double taxation agreements)

4.9           Corporate rescue and liquidations

5.            LAW OF PROPERTY (II)*

5.1           REVISION LEVEL 1

5.2           Co-ownership (trusts of land, legal and equitable title to land, difference between joint tenancies and tenancies in common, method of severance of joint tenancies in equity, solving disagreements between co-owners (ss. 14 & 15 Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustee Act 1996)

5.3           Servitudes, easements and profits (characteristics of easements, creation of easements and profits, express, implied and prescriptive easements)

5.4           Covenants (freehold, leasehold, positive, negative), enforceability of covenants (original parties, successors in title), running of the benefit and the burden

5.6           Buying and selling a property, the contract, the ‘conveyance’

5.7           Equitable obligations

6.            COMMERCAL LAW (II)

6.1           REVISION LEVELS 1 & 2

6.2           Product liability

6.3           ICC terms

6.4           Vehicles for foreign trade (subsidiary, branch, agent, representative, distributor)

6.5           Transport law

7.            EQUITY AND TRUST (II)*

7.1           REVISION LEVEL 1

7.3           Non-charitable purpose trusts: the beneficiary principle, exceptional cases where purpose trusts can be upheld, unincorporated associations

7.4           The fiduciary relationship and its obligations:  duty not to profit from fiduciary position, trustees not to purchase trust property, fiduciary not to put himself in a position of conflict between duty and personal interest

7.5           Strangers as constructive trustees: accountable as constructive trustees, establishing recipient liability, establishing accessory liability

7.6           Who can be a trustee: appointment, removal and retirement, duty of care, duty to invest (powers in relation to investment), trustee’s statutory powers of maintenance and advancement

7.7           Trustee’s liability: breach of trust, measure of liability, protection of trustees, limitation period

7.8           Tracing trust property in equity: establishing the right to trace, mixed and unmixed funds, the personal action in Diplock (unjust enrichment, tracing)

7.9           Equitable remedies: nature of equitable remedies, types of injunction, principles applicable to the issue of interim injunctions


8.1           What is money laundering and when is it happening

8.2           Recognising the signs

8.3           What to do and when

8.4           Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (POCA)

8.5           Confiscation

8.6           Penalties

8.7           Financial services regulation (purpose, scope)

8.8           Framework of financial regulation, application to lawyers

8.9           Financial services issues: specified investments, specific activities, exemptions

8.10         Sources of relevant information

9.            EMPLOYMENT LAW

9.1           Introductory topics

9.2           Employment contracts

9.3           Protected rights

9.4           Discipline and dismissal

9.5           Redundancy

9.6           Unfair dismissal

9.7           ACAS, Employment Tribunal


10.1         What is intellectual property (IP): ‘creations of the mind’

10.2         Why protect it: Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,

10.3         Types of IP: copyright, patents, trademarks, industrial designs, geographical indications

10.4         Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, The Berne Convention, 2004 (amended 2011)

10.5         Copyright: categories (literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, typographical arrangement published editions, sound recording, film), duration

10.6         World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), UK Copyright Service, UK Intellectual Property Office

10.7         Trademarks: Trademarks Act 1994, Madrid Protocol – WIPO, international application, Regulation (EC) No 40/94of 20 December 1993 on the Community Trade Mark, Community Trade Marks (CTM) Regulation 207/2009/EC

10.8         Stopping trademark infringement, jurisdiction (Brussels Regulation 44/2001/EC, CTM Art. 97(5))


Exercises and assessments relating to practice competencies in subjects 1-10 including: drafting witness statements and affidavits, examination in chief, cross-examination, re-examination (practice techniques), closing speeches, advising on risks, negotiation (contentious/non-contentious), negotiating techniques (listening, questioning, exploring alternatives, negotiating styles, documenting conclusions, closing a file, familiarising with standard forms, drafting contrac

%d bloggers like this: